100 Questions relating to the Major Law Enactments that took place in the past 20 YEARS

100 Questions relating to the Major Law Enactments that took place in the past 20 YEARS

100 Questions relating to the MAJOR LAW ENACTMENTS that took place in the past 20 YEARS & their OBJECTIVE

 

 

1.Describe the The Foreign Exchange Management Act(FEMA)?

The Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999 (FEMA) is an Act of the Parliament of India “to consolidate and amend the law relating to foreign exchange with the objective of facilitating external trade and payments and for promoting the orderly development and maintenance of foreign exchange market in India.

  1. When was FEMA passed?

1999

  1. What is The Information Technology Act, 2000?

It is the primary law in India dealing with cybercrime and electronic commerce. It is based on the United Nations Model Law on Electronic Commerce 1996 (UNCITRAL Model) recommended by the General Assembly of United Nations by a resolution dated 30 January 1997.

  1. What is Indian Council of World Affairs (ICWA)?

It is a think-tank, established in 1943.

  1. Indian Council of World Affairs (ICWA) become an act in?

2001

  1. How does Indian Council of World Affairs (ICWA) became an act?

By act of Parliament, as provided in the Constitution of India.

  1. Advocates’ Welfare Fund Act was adopted in which year?

2001

  1. What is the aim of the Welfare Fund Act?

An Act to provide for the constitution of a welfare fund for the benefit of advocates and for other related matters.

  1. When does Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act was adopted?

2002

  1. What is the purpose of the Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act?

It allows banks and other financial institution to auction residential or commercial properties to recover loans.

  1. How the act is beneficial for the secured creditors?

Under this act secured creditors (banks or financial institutions) have many rights for enforcement of security interest under section 13 of SARFAESI Act, 2002.

  1. When was Consumer Protection (Amendment) Act adopted?

2002

  1. What changes did Consumer Protection (Amendment) Act made?

BILL further to amend the Consumer Protection Act, 1986

  1. What is the aim of Competition Act, 2002

An Act to provide, keeping in view of the economic development of the country, for the establishment of a Commission to prevent practices having adverse effect on competition, to promote and sustain competition in markets, to protect the interests of consumers and to ensure freedom of trade carried on by other participants in markets, in India, and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.

  1. Did Competition Act, 2002 made changes to the exsisting laws?

Yes

  1. What were they?

The Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Act, 1969 [MRTP Act] was repealed.

  1. When was Biological Diversity Act passed?

2002

  1. What is the benefit of the Act?

For preservation of biological diversity in India, and provides mechanism for equitable sharing of benefits arising out of the use of traditional biological resources and knowledge.

  1. Why was Biological Diversity Act passed?

The Act was enacted to meet the obligations under Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), to which India is a party.

  1. When was Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products (Prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation of Trade and Commerce, Production, Supply and Distribution) Act enacted?

2002

  1. What is the objective of Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products (Prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation of Trade and Commerce, Production, Supply and Distribution) Act, 2003?

To prohibit advertisement of, and to provide for the regulation of trade and commerce in, and production, supply and distribution of cigarettes and other tobacco products in India.

  1. Why was Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products (Prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation of Trade and Commerce, Production, Supply and Distribution) Act, 2003 passed?

This Act was enacted by the Parliament to give effect to the Resolution passed by the 39th World Health Assembly, urging the member states to implement measures to provide non-smokers protection from involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke.

  1. What was Electricity Act, 2003 aimed at?

The Electricity Act, 2003 is an Act of the Parliament of India enacted to transform the power sector in India.

  1. What areas do Electricity Act, 2003 cover?

The act covers major issues involving generation, distribution, transmission and trading in power. While some of the sections have already been enacted and are yielding benefits, there are a few other sections that are yet to be fully enforced till date.

  1. When was Repatriation of Prisoners Act enacted?

2003

  1. What power does it provide to the Central Government?

If central government feel that act or provisions of act need to be altered or modified in that treaty or that country or that place then central government by notifying in gazette will apply such modification.

  1. Is this act been amended?

Yes

  1. When was Repatriation of Prisoners Act amended?

2010

  1. Why was National Commission for Minority Educational Institutions Act, 2004 passed?

National Commission for Minority Educational Institutions was established to protect and safeguard the educational institutions which are established by the minorities in India.

  1. Does it relate to any specific article of the Constitution?

Yes

  1. How does National Commission for Minority Educational Institutions Act, 2004 relate to Constitution of India?

It ensures rights of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice as provided in the Article 30 of the Constitution of India.

  1. When was Right to Information Act passed?

2005

  1. What is the purpose of the Act?

Right to Information (RTI) is an Act of the Parliament of India to provide for setting out the practical regime of right to information for citizens

  1. Does RTI make changes to any existing law?

It replaced the Freedom of information Act, 2002.

  1. What right has been provided to the citizens under the RTI Act?

Any citizen of India may request information from a “public authority” (a body of Government or “instrumentality of State”) which is required to reply expeditiously or within thirty days.

  1. What the RTI act demands from public authorities?

It ask very public authority to computerize their records for wide dissemination and to proactively certain categories of information so that the citizens need minimum recourse to request for information formally.

  1. Where was the first application of RTI given?

Pune police station

  1. When was Special Economic Zones Act passed?

2005

  1. Why was Special Economic Zones Act passed?

To govern the fields related to Special Economic Zones.

  1. What are Special Economic Zones?

A special economic zone (SEZ) is an area in which business and trade laws are different from rest of the country. SEZs are located within a country’s national borders, and their aims include: increased trade, increased investment, job creation and effective administration.

  1. What is National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005?

It is an Indian labour law and social security measure that aims to guarantee the ‘right to work’

  1. How does National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005 provide right to work?

It aims to enhance livelihood security in rural areas by providing at least 100 days of wage employment in a financial year to every household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work.

  1. Why was Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act 2005 passed?

The Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act 2005 is an Act of the Parliament of India enacted to protect women from domestic violence.

  1. What is the unique feature of this Act?

The Act provides for the first time in Indian law a definition of “domestic violence”, with this definition being broad and including not only physical violence, but also other forms of violence such as emotional/verbal, sexual, and economic abuse.

  1. Is it a civil law or a criminal law?

Civil law

  1. How can be said as a Civil Law?

As it is meant primarily for protection orders and not meant to penalize criminally.

  1. When was Disaster Management Act passed?

2005

  1. What does the act provide?

The Act provides for “the effective management of disasters and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.

  1. Why this act has been criticized?

The act has been criticized for marginalizing Non-governmental organizations (NGOs), elected local representatives, local communities and civic group; and for fostering a hierarchical, bureaucratic, command and control.

  1. What is Commission for Protection of Child Rights Act?

The National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) is an Indian governmental commission, established by an Act of Parliament, the Commission for Protection of Child Rights Act in December 2005, thus is a statutory body.

  1. When does Commission for Protection of Child Rights become an act?

2005

  1. What is the basic feature of the act?

Defines child as those up to the age of 18 years.

  1. What is the objective of the commission?

The Commission considers that its Mandate is “to ensure that all Laws, Policies, Programmes, and Administrative Mechanisms are in consonance with the Child Rights perspective as enshrined in the Constitution of India and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.

  1. When was National Institute of Fashion Technology Act enacted?

2006

  1. What change it brought?

NIFT was granted statutory status in 2006, empowering it to award degrees and other academic distinctions

  1. What did Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006?

The FSSAI has been established under the Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006 which is a consolidating statute related to food safety and regulation in India.

  1. What is Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI)

Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) is an autonomous body established under the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India.

  1. What do The FSSAI is for?

FSSAI is responsible for protecting and promoting public healththrough the regulation and supervision of food safety

  1. When was Prohibition of Child Marriage Act passed?

2006

  1. What is the objective of the act?

The object of the Act is to prohibit solemnization of child marriage and connected and incidental matters.

  1. Does it contain enabling provisions?

Yes.

  1. Discuss the enabling provisions of the act?

Act is armed with enabling provisions to prohibit for child marriage, protect and provide relief to victim and enhance punishment for those who abet, promote or solemnize such marriage.

  1. Why the act is passed?

To ensure that child marriage is eradicated from within the society, the Government of India enacted Prevention of Child marriage Act 2006

  1. Does the act repeal any existing law?

Yes, Child Marriage Restraint Act 1929.

  1. What is Payment and Settlement Systems Act, 2007?

A payment and settlement system in India is covered by the Payment and Settlement Systems Act, 2007 (PSS Act).

  1. What is a Payment and settlement system in India?

Payment and settlement systems in India are payment and settlement systems in India for financial transactions.

  1. Who regulates it?

Regulated by the Reserve Bank of India and the Board for Regulation and Supervision of Payment and Settlement Systems.

  1. When was Gram Nyayalayas Act passed?

2008

  1. What was Gram Nyayalayas Act passed for?

Gram Nyayalayas Act, 2008 is an Act of Parliament of India enacted for establishment of Gram Nyayalayas or village courts for speedy and easy access to justice system in the rural areas of India.

  1. Why it has not been so successful?

The major reasons behind the non-enforcement includes financial constraints, reluctance of lawyers, police and other government officials.

  1. What is the aim of Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009?

It describes the modalities of the importance of free and compulsory education for children between 6 and 14 in India under Article 21A of the Indian Constitution

  1. What change it made?

With this, India has moved forward to a rights based framework that casts a legal obligation on the Central and State Governments to implement this fundamental child right as enshrined in the Article 21A of the Constitution, in accordance with the provisions of the RTE Act

  1. What is National Green Tribunal Act, 2010?

It s an Act of the Parliament of India which enables creation of a special tribunal to handle the expeditious disposal of the cases pertaining to environmental issues.

  1. Does National Green Tribunal Act, 2010 relate to Indian Constitution?

It draws inspiration from the India’s constitutional provision which assures the citizens of India the right to a healthy environment.

  1. To which Article does the Act relate?

Article 21

  1. When was Factoring Regulation Act passed?

2011

  1. What does Factoring Regulation Act aimed to?

The act was passed to regulate factories in India.

  1. The Protection of Children against Sexual Offences Bill, 2011 is based on?

Prevention of child sexual abuse

  1. When was Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act passed?

2013

  1. What does Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act aim at?

It seeks to protect women from sexual harassment at their place of work.

  1. Is the statue based on some case?

Yes

  1. Discuss the basis of the statue?

This statute superseded the Vishakha Guidelines in regard to the landmark case of Vishakha v. State of Rajasthan for prevention of sexual harassment introduced by the Supreme Court of India.

  1. What is the aim of Companies Act of 2013?

The Companies Act 2013 is an Act of the Parliament of India to regulate incorporation of a company, responsibilities of a company, directors, dissolution of a company

  1. Does the act exempt private companies?

No.

  1. Are private companies exempted from the act?

Yes

  1. How are private companies exempted from the act?

The Ministry of Company Affairs thereafter published a notification for exempting private companies from the ambit of various sections under the Companies Act

  1. When was Black Money (Undisclosed Foreign Income and Assets Black Money Act) passed?

2015

  1. What is the aim of Black Money (Undisclosed Foreign Income and Assets Black Money Act?

Black Money (Undisclosed Foreign Income and Assets Black Money Act) is an Act of the Parliament of India. It aims to curb black money, or undisclosed foreign assets and income and imposes tax and penalty on such income.

  1. When was Securities Laws (Amendment) Act passed?

2014

  1. What is the aim of Securities Laws (Amendment) Act, 2014 

It is legislation which provided the securities market regulator Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) with new powers to effectively pursue fraudulent investment schemes, especially ponzi schemes. The bill also provides guidelines for the formation of special fast trial court.

  1. What does the National Institutes of Technology, Science Education and Research (Amendment) Bill, 2016 do?

It establishes the National Institute of Technology (NIT), Andhra Pradesh as an institute of national importance.

  1. How the establishment is done?

Establishment will be as per the National Institutes of Technology, Science Education and Research (NITSER) Act, 2007.

  1. When did the Aadhaar (Targeted Delivery of Financial and Other Subsidies, Benefits and Services) Bill came into force?

2016

  1. What the act aims at?

The Bill provides for targeted delivery of subsidies and services to individuals residing in India. This will be carried out by assigning individuals unique identity numbers, called Aadhaar numbers.

  1. What does the Constitution (122nd Amendment) (GST) Bill, 2014 aim to do?

The Bill amends the Constitution to introduce the goods and services tax (GST).

  1. What changes shall be made in the taxation system?

Parliament and state legislatures will have concurrent powers to make laws on GST.  Only the centre may levy an integrated GST (IGST) on the interstate supply of goods and services, and imports.

  1. When was The Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (Regulation of Livestock Markets) Rules, act passed?

2017

  1. What the act aims to do?

Ban the sale of cows and buffaloes for the purpose of slaughter at animal markets across various states in India

  1. What does Financial Resolution and Deposit Insurance Bill, 2017 aim at?

Provide a comprehensive resolution framework for financial sector entities to deal with bankruptcy situation in banks, insurance companies, and other entities

  1. What is the purpose of The State/UT Agricultural Produce and Livestocks Marketing (promotion and facilitation) Act, 2017?

Defines each state/UT as a single unified market area. The draft law is proposed to overhaul the existing laws.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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