Law School Admission Test (LSAT): 100 solved questions on all the four sections of LSAT

LSAT LAW SCHOOL ADMISSION TEST

Law School Admission Test (LSAT): 100 solved questions on all the four sections of LSAT

 

SECTION I

Directions: Each group of questions in this section is based on a set of conditions. In answering some of the questions, it may be useful to draw a rough diagram. Choose the response that most accurately and completely answers each question and blacken the corresponding space on your answer sheet.

Questions 1–5

A company employee generates a series of five-digit product codes in accordance with the following rules:

The codes use the digits 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4, and no others.

Each digit occurs exactly once in any code.

The second digit has a value exactly twice that of the first digit.

The value of the third digit is less than the value of the fifth digit.

  1. If the last digit of an acceptable product code is 1, it must be true that the

(A) first digit is 2

(B) second digit is 0

(C) third digit is 3

(D) fourth digit is 4

(E) fourth digit is 0

 

  1. Which one of the following must be true about any acceptable product code?

(A) The digit 1 appears in some position before the digit 2.

(B) The digit 1 appears in some position before the digit 3.

(C) The digit 2 appears in some position before the digit 3.

(D) The digit 3 appears in some position before the digit 0.

(E) The digit 4 appears in some position before the digit 3.

 

  1. If the third digit of an acceptable product code is not 0, which one of the following must be true?

(A) The second digit of the product code is 2.

(B) The third digit of the product code is 3.

(C) The fourth digit of the product code is 0.

(D) The fifth digit of the product code is 3.

(E) The fifth digit of the product code is 1.

 

  1. Any of the following pairs could be the third and fourth digits, respectively, of an acceptable product

code, EXCEPT:

(A) 0, 1

(B) 0, 3

(C) 1, 0

(D) 3, 0

(E) 3, 4

 

  1. Which one of the following must be true about any acceptable product code?

(A) There is exactly one digit between the digit 0 and the digit 1.

(B) There is exactly one digit between the digit 1 and the digit 2.

(C) There are at most two digits between the digit 1 and the digit 3.

(D) There are at most two digits between the digit 2 and the digit 3.

(E) There are at most two digits between the digit 2 and the digit 4.

 

Questions 6–10

Exactly three films—Greed, Harvest, and Limelight—are shown during a film club’s festival held on hursday, Friday, and Saturday. Each film is shown at least once during the festival but never more than once on a given day. On each day at least one film is shown. Films are shown one at a time. The following conditions apply: On Thursday Harvest is shown, and no film is shown after it on that day. On Friday either Greed or Limelight, but not both, is shown, and no film is shown after it on that day. On Saturday either Greed or Harvest, but not both, is shown, and no film is shown after it on that day.

 

  1. Which one of the following could be a complete and accurate description of the order in which the films are shown at the festival?

(A) Thursday: Limelight, then Harvest; Friday:Limelight; Saturday: Harvest

(B) Thursday: Harvest; Friday: Greed, then Limelight; Saturday: Limelight, then Greed

(C) Thursday: Harvest; Friday: Limelight; Saturday: Limelight, then Greed

(D) Thursday: Greed, then Harvest, then Limelight; Friday: Limelight; Saturday: Greed

(E) Thursday: Greed, then Harvest; Friday: Limelight, then Harvest; Saturday: Harvest

 

  1. Which one of the following CANNOT be true?

(A) Harvest is the last film shown on each day of the festival.

(B) Limelight is shown on each day of the festival.

(C) Greed is shown second on each day of the festival.

(D) A different film is shown first on each day of the festival.

(E) A different film is shown last on each day of the festival.

 

  1. If Limelight is never shown again during the festival once Greed is shown, then which one of the following is the maximum number of film showings that could occur during the festival?

(A) three

(B) four

(C) five

(D) six

(E) seven

 

  1. If Greed is shown exactly three times, Harvest is shown exactly twice, and Limelight is shown exactly once, then which one of the following must be true?

(A) All three films are shown on Thursday.

(B) Exactly two films are shown on Saturday.

(C) Limelight and Harvest are both shown on Thursday.

(D) Greed is the only film shown on Saturday.

(E) Harvest and Greed are both shown on Friday.

1111

  1. If Limelight is shown exactly three times, Harvest is shown exactly twice, and Greed is shown exactly once, then which one of the following is a complete and accurate list of the films that could be the first film shown on Thursday?

(A) Harvest

(B) Limelight

(C) Greed, Harvest

(D) Greed, Limelight

(E) Greed, Harvest, Limelight

 

Questions 11–17

A cruise line is scheduling seven week-long voyages for the ship Freedom. Each voyage will occur in exactly one of the first seven weeks of the season: weeks 1 through 7. Each voyage will be to exactly one of four destinations: Guadeloupe, Jamaica, Martinique, or Trinidad. Each destination will be scheduled for at least one of the weeks. The following conditions apply to Freedom’s schedule: Jamaica will not be its destination in week 4. Trinidad will be its destination in week 7. Freedom will make exactly two voyages to Martinique, and at least one voyage to Guadeloupe will occur in some week between those two voyages. Guadeloupe will be its destination in the week preceding any voyage it makes to Jamaica.

No destination will be scheduled for consecutive weeks.

  1. Which one of the following is an acceptable schedule of destinations for Freedom, in order from week 1 through week 7?

(A) Guadeloupe, Jamaica, Martinique, Trinidad,Guadeloupe, Martinique, Trinidad

(B) Guadeloupe, Martinique, Trinidad, Martinique, Guadeloupe, Jamaica, Trinidad

(C) Jamaica, Martinique, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Guadeloupe, Jamaica, Trinidad

(D) Martinique, Trinidad, Guadeloupe, Jamaica, Martinique, Guadeloupe, Trinidad

(E) Martinique, Trinidad, Guadeloupe, Trinidad, Guadeloupe, Jamaica, Martinique

 

  1. Which one of the following CANNOT be true about Freedom’s schedule of voyages?

(A) Freedom makes a voyage to Trinidad in week 6.

(B) Freedom makes a voyage to Martinique in week 5.

(C) Freedom makes a voyage to Jamaica in week 6.

(D) Freedom makes a voyage to Jamaica in week 3.

(E) Freedom makes a voyage to Guadeloupe in week 3.

 

  1. If Freedom makes a voyage to Trinidad in week 5, which one of the following could be true?

(A) Freedom makes a voyage to Trinidad in week 1.

(B) Freedom makes a voyage to Martinique in week 2.

(C) Freedom makes a voyage to Guadeloupe in week 3.

(D) Freedom makes a voyage to Martinique in week 4.

(E) Freedom makes a voyage to Jamaica in week 6.

 

  1. If Freedom makes a voyage to Guadeloupe in week 1 and a voyage to Jamaica in week 5, which one of the following must be true?

(A) Freedom makes a voyage to Jamaica in week 2.

(B) Freedom makes a voyage to Trinidad in week 2.

(C) Freedom makes a voyage to Martinique in week 3.

(D) Freedom makes a voyage to Guadeloupe in week 6.

(E) Freedom makes a voyage to Martinique in week 6.

 

  1. If Freedom makes a voyage to Guadeloupe in week 1 and to Trinidad in week 2, which one of the following must be true?

(A) Freedom makes a voyage to Martinique in week 3.

(B) Freedom makes a voyage to Martinique in week 4.

(C) Freedom makes a voyage to Martinique in week 5.

(D) Freedom makes a voyage to Guadeloupe in week 3.

(E) Freedom makes a voyage to Guadeloupe in week 5.

 

  1. If Freedom makes a voyage to Martinique in week 3, which one of the following could be an accurate list of Freedom’s destinations in week 4 and week 5, respectively?

(A) Guadeloupe, Trinidad

(B) Jamaica, Guadeloupe

(C) Martinique, Trinidad

(D) Trinidad, Jamaica

(E) Trinidad, Martinique

 

  1. Which one of the following must be true about Freedom’s schedule of voyages?

(A) Freedom makes a voyage to Guadeloupe either in week 1 or else in week 2.

(B) Freedom makes a voyage to Martinique either in week 2 or else in week 3.

(C) Freedom makes at most two voyages to Guadeloupe.

(D) Freedom makes at most two voyages to Jamaica.

(E) Freedom makes at most two voyages to Trinidad.

 

Questions 18–23

There are exactly three recycling centers in Rivertown:  Center 1, Center 2, and Center 3. Exactly five kinds of material are recycled at these recycling centers: glass, newsprint, plastic, tin, and wood. Each recycling center recycles at least two but no more than three of these kinds of material. The following conditions must hold: Any recycling center that recycles wood also recycles newsprint. Every kind of material that Center 2 recycles is also recycled at Center 1. Only one of the recycling centers recycles plastic, and that recycling center does not recycle glass.

  1. Which one of the following could be an accurate account of all the kinds of material recycled at each recycling center in Rivertown?

(A) Center 1: newsprint, plastic, wood; Center 2: newsprint, wood; Center 3: glass, tin, wood

(B) Center 1: glass, newsprint, tin; Center 2: glass, newsprint, tin; Center 3: newsprint, plastic, wood

(C) Center 1: glass, newsprint, wood; Center 2: glass, newsprint, tin; Center 3: plastic, tin

(D) Center 1: glass, plastic, tin; Center 2: glass, tin; Center 3: newsprint, wood

(E) Center 1: newsprint, plastic, wood; Center 2: newsprint, plastic, wood; Center 3: glass,newsprint, tin

 

  1. Which one of the following is a complete and accurate list of the recycling centers in Rivertown any one of which could recycle plastic?

(A) Center 1 only

(B) Center 3 only

(C) Center 1, Center 2

(D) Center 1, Center 3

(E) Center 1, Center 2, Center 3

 

  1. If Center 2 recycles three kinds of material, then which one of the following kinds of material must Center 3 recycle?

(A) glass

(B) newsprint

(C) plastic

(D) tin

(E) wood

 

  1. If each recycling center in Rivertown recycles exactly three kinds of material, then which one of the following could be true?

(A) Only Center 2 recycles glass.

(B) Only Center 3 recycles newsprint.

(C) Only Center 1 recycles plastic.

(D) Only Center 3 recycles tin.

(E) Only Center 1 recycles wood.

 

  1. If Center 3 recycles glass, then which one of the following kinds of material must Center 2 recycle?

(A) glass

(B) newsprint

(C) plastic

(D) tin

(E) wood

 

  1. If Center 1 is the only recycling center that recycles wood, then which one of the following could be a complete and accurate list of the kinds of material that one of the recycling centers recycles?

(A) plastic, tin

(B) newsprint, wood

(C) newsprint, tin

(D) glass, wood

(E) glass, tin

 

SECTION II

Directions: The questions in this section are based on the reasoning contained in brief statements or passages. For some questions, more than one of the choices could conceivably answer the question. However, you are to choose the best answer; that is, the response that most accurately and completely answers the question. You should not make assumptions that are by commonsense standards implausible, superfluous, or incompatible with the passage. After you have chosen the best answer, blacken the corresponding space on your answer sheet.

  1. For the average person who needs a transfusion, blood from a relative is more likely to be infected with hepatitis than is blood from a blood bank. Therefore, the risk of contracting hepatitis from a transfusion is higher for people receiving blood from relatives than for people receiving blood from blood banks.

Which one of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?

(A) People receiving blood transfusions often specify that blood from their relatives be used.

(B) Blood transfusions only rarely result in the recipient being infected with hepatitis.

(C) Blood taken from a relative is highly likely to match a transfusion recipient’s blood type.

(D) Donors to blood banks are always asked whether they have ever been infected with hepatitis.

(E) Blood that is to be used in a transfusion is always screened for hepatitis.

 

  1. Herons must eat large numbers of fish to survive. Therefore, according to naturalists, when many herons nest near each other in a marsh, large numbers of fish must be available to them. But many herons successfully nest in the Pahargaon marsh, and that marsh has been nearly empty of fish for many years. Which one of the following, if true, most helps to reconcile the apparent discrepancy described above?

(A) Pesticides used on nearby farms have seeped into the waters of the Pahargaon marsh and killed

most of the fish.

(B) The Pahargaon marsh has been growing saltier over the years, killing off much of the vegetation

that the fish needed to eat.

(C) The herons in the Pahargaon marsh have been successfully raising unusually large families, with an average of almost two offspring surviving from each nesting.

(D) Herons nesting in the Pahargaon marsh normally feed on fish living in nearby marshes.

(E) The large heron population in the Pahargaon marsh placed so great a strain on the fish population that the number of fish declined dramatically.

 

  1. Journalist: Until recently, doctors enjoyed high statusin Canada. Although once admired as altruistic, in the last few decades doctors have fallen in public esteem. While it is acknowledged that doctors are indispensable, they are seen by critics as always wanting higher fees from the provincial governments, and even shielding incompetence in some cases, thereby being more dedicated to selfinterest than the public interest. Which one of the following is most supported by the journalist’s statements?

(A) Doctors in Canada are perceived by critics as being less competent than they used to be.

(B) Without the public esteem doctors previously enjoyed, fewer Canadians will become doctors.

(C) Doctors in Canada are perceived by critics as not being sufficiently devoted to the interest of others.

(D) Nonmedical professionals in Canada are perceived as being altruistic and competent.

(E) In the past, doctors did not accept, let alone demand, high fees from the provincial governments.

 

Questions 4–5

Lakshmi: I know that wildflowers are threatened because of the reduced number of suitable spaces where they can grow and that people should generally leave them where they are growing. This large field, however, is full of plants of one wildflower species, and it would be all right for me to take just one plant, since there are so many.

Malini: There will not be many there in the future if many people act on your principle.

  1. Malini’s criticism proceeds by

(A) arguing that if a resource can be used on a sustainable basis and not depleted, no harm is Done

(B) contending that Lakshmi is presupposing that an  exception can properly be made for her but not for anyone else

(C) pointing out that apparently insignificant individual acts of a certain kind can have a large cumulative effect

(D) accusing Lakshmi of improper motives instead of responding to Lakshmi’s argument

(E) relying on the principle that a selfish act is wrongeven when it has no harmful effect

 

  1. Which one of the following, if true, is the strongest response Lakshmi can make to counter Malini’s criticism?

(A) Even if I took a plant from the field, I would not tell others about the field, so that you would be the only person who would know about my action and I would not be advocating my principle to a large number of people.

(B) If everyone, as I would, carefully leaves an abundance of mature plants to reseed the field, a few plants can be removed without detriment to the species.

(C) If I removed a plant, I would provide it with suitable conditions for life, including nutrientsand sunlight in amounts similar to those it has now, so you cannot presume that it would die.

(D) Even though the plant is not necessary to me for my survival, neither is it the only plant in the field, and it is possible for the species to survive without it.

(E) Not everyone is interested in this type of wildflower, and there are many people who will not wish to go to the trouble of digging up a plant from the field.

 

  1. If one has recently been overwhelmed by overstimulation, peaceful rest feels pleasant by contrast. Similarly, recent experience of boredom makes most forms of excitement pleasurable, even dangerous ones. No level of stimulation is intrinsically pleasant or unpleasant. The statements above, if true, most strongly support which one of the following?

(A) Danger generally appears more pleasurable than boredom.

(B) How pleasant a person finds a situation can depend on previous levels of stimulation.

(C) Boredom can be just as overwhelming as overstimulation.

(D) A high level of stimulation is never pleasant, but it often precedes pleasant relaxation.

(E) One cannot experience pleasure without first experiencing boredom

 

Questions 7–8

Farah: Health officials know that in East Asia cancer is much less common than it is in North America. And it is widely known that typical East Asian diets include a larger proportion of whole grains than typical North American diets do. So North American health officials are derelict in their duty to protect the public health if they do not encourage North Americans to increase the proportion of whole grains in their diets.

Prasad: Tea contains substances that can help prevent several types of cancer, and tea is consumed much more widely in East Asia than in North America.

  1. Prasad responds to Farah by

(A) attempting to show that the evidence Farah presents is self-contradictory

(B) undermining Farah’s argument by providing evidence that supports an alternative explanation

(C) introducing further evidence that supports Farah’s conclusion

(D) calling into question the accuracy of Farah’s claim concerning the proportions of whole grains consumed in East Asia and North America

(E) demonstrating that the beneficial effects that Farah attributes to diet can be counteracted by other factors

 

  1. Farah’s reasoning is questionable because it

(A) confuses a difference in proportion with a difference in absolute amount

(B) overlooks the possibility that some people in North America include about the same proportion of whole grains in their diets as is found in typical East Asian diets

(C) fails to distinguish between preventing particular cases of a disease and reducing the overall  incidence of that disease

(D) ignores any differences other than differences in diet that might account for the incidence of cancer in East Asia and North America

(E) uses ambiguously the term “typical” in reaching the conclusion

 

  1. Domesticated animals, such as dogs, have come into existence by the breeding of only the individuals of a wild species that are sufficiently tame. For example, if when breeding wolves one breeds only those that display tameness when young, then after a number of generations the offspring will be a species of dog. Therefore, all animals can, in principle, be bred for domesticity. Which one of the following, if true, most weakens the argument?

(A) Domesticated animals cannot be turned into wild species by breeding only those animals that

display some wild characteristics.

(B) In some animal species, wild members mate more frequently than tame members.

(C) In some animal species, no members ever display tameness.

(D) In some animal species, tame members are less fertile than wild members.

(E) In some domesticated animal species, some members are much more tame than other members.

 

  1. Anthropologist: It has been claimed that religious prohibitions against eating certain types of food are evidence against the belief that all cultural phenomena have a purely economic explanation. After all, the reasoning goes, only a moral or spiritual motive could persuade people to forgo readily available sources of nutrients. But the species whose consumption is prohibited are usually essential elements of ecosystems containing other species that are used as food. The preservation of the prohibited species thus tends to help preserve the other species. Therefore, such prohibitions do indeed have an economic motivation. The reasoning in the anthropologist’s argument is flawed because the argument

(A) infers, merely from the claim that a practice has a certain desirable consequence, that this consequence must provide a motivation for the practice

(B) takes for granted that people could have a reason for adopting a certain policy and nevertheless not realize what that reason is

(C) infers, merely from the claim that a certain cultural phenomenon has no economic explanation, that the explanation of this phenomenon must be spiritual or moral

(D) uses the key term “prohibition” in two different senses

(E) draws a conclusion that simply restates a claim presented in support of that conclusion

 

  1. What defines the offenses of libel, discrimination, and harassment is more the motivation than the act itself. Since finding evidence of motivation in these acts is difficult, judges must often apply relevant laws without specific guiding criteria. Therefore, public trust in judges is essential to public satisfaction with the outcome of trials involving these offenses. Which one of the following most accurately describes the role played in the argument by the statement that what defines some offenses is more the motivation than the act?

(A) It is cited as the reason that not all legal proceedings are settled reliably by judges.

(B) It is specified as a feature of certain offenses that makes determination that an offense has occurred difficult.

(C) It is cited to counter the view that trials can sometimes be settled without relying on public trust in the rulings made by judges.

(D) It is offered as evidence that some illegal actions can never be determined to be such.

(E) It is offered as evidence that a precise specification of the characteristics of certain offenses would increase public satisfaction with judges’ rulings.

 

  1. In seventeenth-century France, many remunerative government positions in the provinces were sold by the king and then passed from father to son. Historians haveconcluded that this system was more effective than a purely meritocratic system in ensuring not only that most of the officials were competent, but that they were more sympathetic to the local people than to the king. Each of the following, if true of seventeenth-century France, helps to support the historians’ conclusion

EXCEPT:

(A) To raise revenues, new offices were often created and sold by the king.

(B) People who assumed government positions were often trained from childhood for the performance of their duties.

(C) It was difficult for the king to oust a disloyal government official from an inherited office.

(D) Most government officials had close ties to the people in the provinces in which they held their positions.

(E) Government officials often received financial gratuities from local merchants.

 

  1. Scientists are more likely to consider their experiments well designed if the results are consistent with their expectations than otherwise. The results of this experiment were inconsistent with the expectations of the scientists who conducted it. Therefore, it is more likely that they consider the experiment poorly designed than that they consider it well designed. The reasoning in the argument is flawed because the argument ignores the possibility that

(A) some scientists rarely consider their experiments well designed even when the results are consistent with their expectations

(B) the results of even those experiments scientists consider poorly designed are usually consistent with their expectations

(C) scientists sometimes consider their experiments poorly designed for reasons other than the inconsistency of the results with their expectations

(D) scientists usually consider their experiments well designed even when the results are inconsistent with their expectations

(E) scientists sometimes consider their experiments poorly designed even when these experiments

are well designed

  1. Tarang claims not to like Hindi pop music, but that cannot be true, because Tarang’s friends Anjali and Lokesh like Hindi pop music. Since Tarang, Anjali, and Lokesh are all teenagers, and most teenagers like the same kind of music that their friends like, Tarang must also like Hindi pop music. Which one of the following contains flawed reasoning most similar to that in the argument above?

(A) Most grandparents see each of their grandchildren an average of once a year. Venkat and Chitra are grandparents and did not see any of their  grandchildren this year. Therefore, they will probably see all of their grandchildren twice next year.

(B) Most families that have a dog also have at least one cat. The Chaudary family has a cat, so they probably have a dog as well.

(C) In most families with children, each child does a different household chore from his or her’siblings. There are four children in the Attawala family, so each of the Attawala children probably does a different household chore.

(D) In most married couples, both spouses wake up at the same time. Padmini wakes up at seven o’clock every morning, so it must be that Padmini’s spouse Lamba also wakes up at seven o’clock every morning.

(E) In most sets of twins, both twins are approximately the same height. Tanya is a head taller than her brother Rahul. Therefore, it is unlikely that Tanya and Rahul are twins.

 

  1. Naresh: In the near future we will be able to construct machines capable of conversing as humans do. Teaching computers English syntax is not as problematic as once thought, and we are making great strides in discovering what background knowledge these machines will require.

Ashok: But being able to converse as humans do is not solely about possessing the correct syntax and background knowledge. It also involves the capacity to communicate the often emotional and confused knowledge one has; plainly, no computer will ever be able to do that.N aresh and Ashok most clearly disagree on whether

(A) computers will become more adept at communicating emotional and confused knowledge

(B) in the near future humans and machines will be able to converse with one another

(C) there will ever be a computer capable of conversing as humans do

(D) syntax and background knowledge are important in teaching computers to converse as humans do

(E) only humans communicate emotional and confused knowledge

 

  1. In an experiment, Dr. Farouk studied houseplants that had flourished for years. Over a three-day period he spoke to the plants encouragingly. He then transplanted them outside into a garden and stopped talking to them. Although he continued watering and fertilizing the plants, they soon wilted. When they had not recovered after two days, Dr. Farouk became so concerned that he started talking to them every hour; the next day they began to recover.Which one of the following is most strongly supported by the information above?

(A) Talking to plants enhances their health.

(B) Plants always need at least two days to adjust to transplantation.

(C) Changes in growing conditions can affect the flourishing of plants.

(D) Watering plants too much is as hazardous to their well-being as not watering them enough.

(E) There are many aspects of plant development that cannot be explained by science.

 

  1. No democracy should require national identification cards, for such cards are characteristic of totalitarian societies and have served only to track and control civilians. The conclusion drawn above follows logically if which one of the following is assumed?

(A) Every democracy requiring national identification cards becomes increasingly totalitarian as a

result.

(B) National identification cards can serve only to track and control citizens.

(C) No democracy should track and control its civilians.

(D) Those who propose national identification cards aim to make society more totalitarian.

(E) No feature characteristic of totalitarian societies should be adopted by any democracy.

 

  1. One view of scientific revolutions is that they are brought about by new scientific observations; another is that they are scientific versions of popular ideas. If popular ideas lead to revolutionary scientific ideas, then revolutionary scientific ideas should be immediately accepted by the nonscientific public. However, if the driving force in the production of revolutionary scientific ideas is scientific observations, then similarity between those scientific ideas and popular ideas is coincidence. Nearly all revolutionary ideas in science have met with years of rejection from the nonscientific community. Which one of the following is most strongly supported by the information above?

(A) Scientific ideas that resemble popular ideas are revolutionary.

(B) Popular ideas rarely lead to the development of revolutionary scientific ideas.

(C) Scientific ideas immediately accepted by the nonscientific community are scientific versions

of popular ideas.

(D) Revolutionary scientific ideas are rarely rejected by the scientific community.

(E) New observations made in science are always rejected by the nonscientific community.

 

  1. Food cooked in iron pots absorbs significant amounts of iron during cooking, and people whose food is cooked in iron pots consume enough iron in this way to satisfy their nutritional requirements for iron. Therefore, there is no need for these people to eat the kinds of foods that naturally contain iron. Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) Food that has been cooked in iron pots does not absorb any non-nutritive elements from the pots.

(B) Any essential nutrients other than iron in foods that naturally contain iron can be obtained from other foods.

(C) People who prefer to use iron pots for cooking food do not use pots made of any other material.

(D) There are some foods that naturally contain as much iron as can be obtained from any other food that has been cooked in an iron pot.

(E) The iron absorbed into food from iron pots is less easily digestible than the iron that occurs naturally in some foods.

 

  1. Criminologist: Those who propose a rule mandating a life sentence for any criminal who has multiple convictions for serious crimes argue that it would be a welcome crackdown on career criminals. In reality, however, few repeat offenders are convicted of anything other than minor violations. The criminologist’s statements, if true, most strongly support which one of the following?

(A) The sentencing of most repeat offenders would be unaffected by the proposed rule if it became law.

(B) Many first-time offenders are convicted of serious crimes as well as minor violations.

(C) People who have never been convicted of minor violations are unlikely to become career criminals.

(D) Most people who have committed serious crimes are not convicted of anything other than minor violations.

(E) If the proposed sentencing rule became law, it would not actually increase the number of life sentences given.

 

  1. If I borrow a generator from a neighbor, then I am morally obligated to return it when my immediate need for it is over. But suppose, instead, I borrow a car, and when I go to return it, the neighbor from whom Iborrowed it is very drunk and wants to drive the car; then the obligation to return the car immediately is much less clear. So not all cases of borrowing are equivalent. Which one of the following most accurately expresses the main point of the argument?

(A) Though some cases may seem to be exceptions, the rule that one ought to return to others what one borrowed from them is an exceptionless rule.

(B) There is an obligation to refrain from acting in a manner that could result in harm to people, and this obligation overrides lesser obligations when they conflict with it.

(C) When someone that we know is likely to injure someone else, it is not altogether clear whether we have an obligation to intervene.

(D) Although having borrowed something gives rise, in an ordinary case, to an obligation to return the item promptly, it does not so obviously give rise to such an obligation in every case.

(E) Though private property has moral significance, its significance is less than that of human life and human health.

 

  1. Political scientist: While voters have a legal right to know what is being done by those whom they elect, there must be limits placed on public access to the detailed workings of the legislative process. Legislators receive little credit for reaching compromises but much criticism for failing to stick to their principles, and thus become less willing to modify their demands so that needed legislation can be passed. Which one of the following principles, if valid, would most help to justify the political scientist’s reasoning?

(A) Legislation should be written so as to benefit the welfare of all citizens, rather than only a few.

(B) It is acceptable to restrict some legal rights if doing so makes the political process more efficient.

(C) Compromise between factions with equally compelling interests can only be effected by unprincipled legislators.

(D) A legislative process should be designed in a way that minimizes government secrecy.

(E) Legislators should be given credit for reaching compromises that facilitate the passage of needed legislation.

 

  1. Murali: You are wrong to assert that the question of the painting’s authenticity is a factual matter. You may believe that the painting is authentic, but this is an opinion and not a fact. Experts disagree about whether or not the painting is authentic. Prakash: Whether a painting is beautiful or not is merely a matter of opinion, but the question of who painted it is not. A painting is either authentic or not. Thus the authenticity of the painting is a factual matter. Which one of the following most accurately describes the role played in Prakash’s argument by the claim that whether a painting is beautiful or not is merely a matter of opinion?

(A) It is offered as a way of conceding to Murali that the painting may not be authentic.

(B) It is presented as a refutation of Murali’s view that whether the painting is authentic or not is a matter of opinion.

(C) It is used to clarify what Prakash means by “factual matter,” by contrasting it with a matter of opinion.

(D) It is the position that Prakash’s argument needs to refute in order to establish its conclusion.

(E) It is the conclusion of Prakash’s argument.

 

  1. Advertisement: Every time you use your X card to charge any purchase, you accumulate credit with Worldwide Airlines in proportion to the cost of the purchase. This credit can then be used to reducethe cost of your Worldwide Airlines tickets. So with this new program you can now afford purchases you couldn’t afford before: the extra money you can save on travel is money you can spend on these purchases! The advertisement’s argument depends on assuming which one of the following?

(A) Some of the destinations to which you would be likely to travel are serviced by airlines that compete with Worldwide Airlines.

(B) The balance on purchases you charge with an X card is subject to an interest rate that is below average.

(C) The purchases you normally make are invariably from businesses that accept the X card.

(D) You can accumulate an amount of credit with Worldwide Airlines that is at least as great as the value of any of the potential purchases you could not afford before.

(E) You are likely to travel to at least one of the destinations serviced by Worldwide Airlines.

 

  1. Once children begin to read they acquire new vocabulary most naturally as the indirect result of reading difficult, challenging material. The major alternative—direct studying of new vocabulary items—is less natural; most people are not so inclined. From age six to age thirteen, children learn thousands of new words a year, mostly through reading; direct studying accounts for less than one-tenth of all new words learned. So it is bound to be inefficient for young students to learn new vocabulary by direct studying.Which one of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?

(A) Experts disagree on the estimates of how many words children typically learn from age six to age thirteen.

(B) Children can learn new words from listening to  adult conversations and to television.

(C) Reading difficult material sometimes leaves one confused as to the meaning of certain words.

(D) Children from age six to age thirteen spend vastly much more time reading than they spend directly studying new vocabulary.

(E) Adults who habitually read difficult material tend not to learn many new words from doing so.

 

  1. Some music theorists argue that music can arouse pity in the listener. But since pity can be felt only when there is someone or something to be pitied, and since nothing but the music is available to be the object of the listener’s pity, if anything is pitiable, then it is the music itself. But it makes no sense to say that a piece of music is pitiable; so music cannot arouse pity in the listener. The pattern of reasoning in the argument above is most similar to that in which one of the following arguments?

(A) Some people claim that the quality of one’s life can be estimated by summing all the positive aspects of one’s life and subtracting all the negative aspects. This implies that it is possible to place a numerical value on such things as health and emotional well-being; but trying to put a numerical value on such things is nonsense. Thus, the quality of a life cannot be measured in this way.

(B) Astronomers use color photography to measure the temperatures of stars. Using colorphotography implies that the object photographed has color. But it makes no sense to speak of the color of stars because stars are clouds of gas. Therefore, color photographs of stars must represent something other than the color of the stars.

(C) Some statisticians predict future events by observing past events; this requires extrapolating from the past. Though it is impossible to make completely accurate predictions through extrapolation, many predictions can be madewith at least a reasonable degree of confidence.Therefore, these statisticians are justified in making predictions about the future.

(D) People often worry about whether science and religion are compatible with one another. This question assumes that science and religion deal with the same questions. But many people believe that science and religion do not deal with the same questions, even if superficially they seem to. Therefore, it is possible for many people to believe in both science and religion.

(E) Some science writers imagine what life would be like if humans could inhabit distant planets. Inhabiting these planets, they claim, is an inevitable consequence of current research. But it is absurd to think that humans will actually live on other planets. Therefore, it must be wrong to claim that this follows inevitably from current research.

 

SECTION III

Directions: The questions in this section are based on the reasoning contained in brief statements or passages. For some questions, more than one of the choices could conceivably answer the question. However, you are to choose the best answer; that is, the response that most accurately and completely answers the question. You should not make assumptions that are by commonsense standards implausible, superfluous, or incompatible with the passage. After you have chosen the best answer, blacken the corresponding space on your answer sheet.

  1. Situation: Someone living in a cold climate buys a winter coat that is stylish but not warm in order to appear sophisticated. Analysis: People are sometimes willing to sacrifice sensual comfort or pleasure for the sake of appearances. The analysis provided for the situation above is most appropriate for which one of the following situations?

(A) A person buys an automobile to commute to work even though public transportation is quick and reliable.

(B) A parent buys a car seat for a young child because it is more colorful and more comfortable for the child than the other car seats on the market, though no safer.

(C) A couple buys a particular wine even though their favorite wine is less expensive and better tasting because they think it will impress their dinner guests.

(D) A person sets her thermostat at a low temperature during the winter because she is concerned about the environmental damage caused by using fossil fuels to heat her home.

 

  1. After replacing his old gas water heater with a new, pilotless, gas water heater that is rated as highly efficient, Jairam’s gas bills increased. Each of the following, if true, contributes to an explanation of the increase mentioned above EXCEPT:

(A) The new water heater uses a smaller percentage of the gas used by Jairam’s household than did the old one.

(B) Shortly after the new water heater was installed, Jairam’s uncle came to live with him, doubling the size of the household.

(C) After having done his laundry at a laundromat, Jairam bought and started using a gas dryer when he replaced his water heater.

(D) Jairam’s utility company raised the rates for gas consumption following installation of the new water heater.

 

  1. Champa: The artist Marc Quinn has displayed, behind a glass plate, biologically replicated fragments of Sir John Sulston’s DNA, calling it a “conceptual portrait” of Sulston. But to be a portrait, something must bear a recognizable resemblance to its subject.

Anil: I disagree. Quinn’s conceptual portrait is a maximally realistic portrait, for it holds actual instructions according to which Sulston was created. The dialogue provides most support for the claim that Champa and Anil disagree over whether the object described by Quinn as a conceptual portrait of Sir John Sulston

(A) should be considered to be art

(B) should be considered to be Quinn’s work

(C) bears a recognizable resemblance to Sulston

(D) is actually a portrait of Sulston

 

4.Many corporations have begun decorating their halls with motivational posters in hopes of boosting their employees’ motivation to work productively. However, almost all employees at these corporations are already motivated to work productively. So these corporations’ use of motivational posters is unlikely to achieve its intended purpose. The reasoning in the argument is most vulnerable to criticism on the grounds that the argument

(A) fails to consider whether corporations that do not currently use motivational posters would increase their employees’ motivation to work productively if they began using the posters

(B) takes for granted that, with respect to their employees’ motivation to work productively, corporations that decorate their halls with motivational posters are representative of corporations in general

(C) fails to consider that even if motivational posters do not have one particular beneficial effect for corporations, they may have similar effects that are equally beneficial

(D) fails to consider that even if employees are already motivated to work productively, motivational posters may increase that motivation

 

  1. Ahmed: An early entomologist observed ants carrying particles to neighboring ant colonies and inferred that the ants were bringing food to their neighbors. Further research, however, revealed that the ants were emptying their own colony’s dumping site. Thus, the early entomologist was wrong. Ahmed’s conclusion follows logically if which one of the following is assumed?

(A) Ant societies do not interact in all the same ways that human societies interact.

(B) There is only weak evidence for the view that ants have the capacity to make use of objects as gifts.

(C) Ant dumping sites do not contain particles that could be used as food.

(D) The ants to whom the particles were brought never carried the particles into their own colonies.

 

  1. Jaya, who owns a car dealership, has donated cars to driver education programs at area schools for over five years. She found the statistics on car accidents to be disturbing, and she wanted to do something to encourage better driving in young drivers. Some members of the community have shown their support for this action by purchasing cars from Jaya’s dealership. Which one of the following propositions is best illustrated by the passage?

(A) The only way to reduce traffic accidents is through driver education programs.

(B) Altruistic actions sometimes have positive consequences for those who perform them.

(C) Young drivers are the group most likely to benefit from driver education programs.

(D) It is usually in one’s best interest to perform actions that benefit others.

 

  1. Amar: One can live a life of moderation by never deviating from the middle course. But then one loses the joy of spontaneity and misses the opportunities that come to those who are ccasionally willing to take great chances, or to go too far.

Madhuri: But one who, in the interests of moderation, never risks going too far is actually failing to live a life of moderation: one must be moderate even in one’s moderation. Amar and Madhuri disagree over

(A) whether it is desirable for people occasionally to take great chances in life

(B) what a life of moderation requires of a person

(C) whether it is possible for a person to embrace other virtues along with moderation

(D) how often a person ought to deviate from the middle course in life

 

  1. Advertisement: Fabric-Soft leaves clothes soft and fluffy, and its fresh scent is a delight. We conducted a test using over 100 consumers to prove Fabric-Soft is best. Each consumer was given one towel washed with Fabric-Soft and one towel washed without it. Ninety-nine percent of the consumers preferred the Fabric-Soft towel. So Fabric-Soft is the most effective fabric softener available. The advertisement’s reasoning is most vulnerable to criticism on the grounds that it fails to consider whether

(A) any of the consumers tested are allergic to  fabric softeners

(B) Fabric-Soft is more or less harmful to the environment than other fabric softeners

(C) the consumers tested had the opportunity to evaluate fabric softeners other than Fabric-Soft

(D) the consumers tested find the benefits of using fabric softeners worth the expense

 

  1. Naturalist: The recent claims that the Tasmanian tiger is not extinct are false. The Tasmanian tiger’s natural habitat was taken over by sheep farming decades ago, resulting in the animal’s systematic elimination from the area. Since then naturalists working in the region have discovered no hard evidence of its survival, such as carcasses or tracks. In spite of alleged sightings of the animal, the Tasmanian tiger no longer exists. Which one of the following is an assumption on which the naturalist’s argument depends?

(A) Sheep farming drove the last Tasmanian tigers to starvation by chasing them from their natural habitat.

(B) Some scavengers in Tasmania are capable of destroying tiger carcasses without a trace.

(C) Every naturalist working in the Tasmanian tiger’s natural habitat has looked systematically for evidence of the tiger’s survival.

(D) The Tasmanian tiger did not move and adapt to a different region in response to the loss of habitat.

 

  1. Advertisers have learned that people are more easily encouraged to develop positive attitudes about things toward which they originally have neutral or even negative attitudes if those things are linked, with pictorial help rather than exclusively through prose, to things about which they already have positive attitudes. Therefore, advertisers are likely to _______. Which one of the following most logically completes the argument?

(A) use little if any written prose in their advertisements

(B) try to encourage people to develop positive attitudes about products that can be better  represented pictorially than in prose

(C) create advertisements containing pictures of things most members of the target audience like

(D) highlight the desirable features of the advertised product by contrasting them pictorially with undesirable features of a competing product

 

  1. Feathers recently taken from seabirds stuffed and preserved in the 1880s have been found to contain only half as much mercury as feathers recently taken from living birds of the same species. Since mercury that ccumulates in a seabird’s feathers as the feathers grow is derived from fish eaten by the bird, these results indicate that mercury levels in saltwater fish are higher now than they were 100 years ago. The argument depends on assuming that

(A) the proportion of a seabird’s diet consisting of fish was not as high, on average, in the 1880s as it is today

(B) the amount of mercury in a saltwater fish depends on the amount of pollution in the ocean habitat of the fish

(C) mercury derived from fish is essential for the normal growth of a seabird’s feathers

(D) the process used to preserve birds in the 1880s did not substantially decrease the amount of mercury in the birds’ feathers

 

  1. Novel X and Novel Y are both semiautobiographical novels and contain many very similar themes and situations, which might lead one to suspect plagiarism on the part of one of the authors. However, it is more likely that the similarity of themes and situations in the two novels is merely coincidental, since both authors are from very similar backgrounds and have led similar lives. Which one of the following most accurately expresses the conclusion drawn in the argument?

(A) Novel X and Novel Y are both semiautobiographical novels, and the two novels contain many very similar themes and situations.

(B) The fact that Novel X and Novel Y are both semiautobiographical novels and contain many very similar themes and situations might lead one to suspect plagiarism on the part of one of the authors.

(C) The author of Novel X and the author of Novel Y are from very similar backgrounds and have led very similar lives.

(D) It is less likely that one of the authors of Novel X or Novel Y is guilty of plagiarism than that the similarity of themes and situations in the two novels is merely coincidental.

 

  1. Therapist: Cognitive psychotherapy focuses on changing a patient’s conscious beliefs. Thus, cognitive psychotherapy is likely to be more effective at helping patients overcome psychological problems than are forms of psychotherapy that focus on changing unconscious beliefs and desires, since only conscious beliefs are under the patient’s direct conscious control. Which one of the following, if true, would most strengthen the therapist’s argument?

(A) Psychological problems are frequently caused by unconscious beliefs that could be changed with the aid of psychotherapy.

(B) It is difficult for any form of psychotherapy to be effective without focusing on mental states that are under the patient’s direct conscious control.

(C) Cognitive psychotherapy is the only form of psychotherapy that focuses primarily on changing the patient’s conscious beliefs.

(D) No form of psychotherapy that focuses on changing the patient’s unconscious beliefs and desires can be effective unless it also helps change beliefs that are under the patient’s direct conscious control.

 

  1. Commentator: In academic scholarship, sources are always cited, and methodology and theoretical assumptions are set out, so as to allow critical study, replication, and expansion of scholarship. In open-source software, the code in which the program is written can be viewed and modified by individual users for their purposes without getting permission from the producer or paying a fee. In contrast, the code of proprietary software is kept secret, and modifications can be made only by the producer, for a fee. This shows that open-source software better matches the values embodied in academic scholarship, and since scholarship is central to the mission of universities, universities should use only open-source software. The commentator’s reasoning most closely conforms to which one of the following principles?

(A) Whatever software tools are most advanced and can achieve the goals of academic scholarship are the ones that should alone be used in universities.

(B) Universities should use the type of software technology that is least expensive, as long as that type of software technology is adequate for the purposes of academic scholarship.

(C) Universities should choose the type of software technology that best matches the values embodied in the activities that are central to the mission of universities.

(D) The form of software technology that best matches the values embodied in the activities that are central to the mission of universities is the form of software technology that is most efficient for universities to use.

 

  1. A consumer magazine surveyed people who had sought a psychologist’s help with a personal problem. Of those responding who had received treatment for 6 months or less, 20 percent claimed that treatment “made things a lot better.” Of those responding who had received longer treatment, 36 percent claimed that treatment “made things a lot better.” Therefore, psychological treatment lasting more than 6 months is more effective than shorter-term treatment. Which one of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?

(A) Of the respondents who had received treatment for longer than 6 months, 10 percent said that treatment made things worse.

(B) Patients who had received treatment for longer than 6 months were more likely to respond to the survey than were those who had received treatment for a shorter time.

(C) Patients who feel they are doing well in treatment tend to remain in treatment, while those who are doing poorly tend to quit earlier.

(D) Patients who were dissatisfied with their treatment were more likely to feel a need to express their feelings about it and thus to return the survey.

 

  1. Philosopher: Nations are not literally persons; they have no thoughts or feelings, and, literally speaking, they perform no actions. Thus they have no moral rights or responsibilities. But no nation can survive unless many of its citizens attribute such rights and responsibilities to it, for nothing else could prompt people to make the sacrifices national citizenship demands. Obviously, then, a nation _______. Which one of the following most logically completes the philosopher’s argument?

(A) cannot continue to exist unless something other than the false belief that the nation has moral rights motivates its citizens to make sacrifices

(B) cannot survive unless many of its citizens have some beliefs that are literally false

(C) can never be a target of moral praise or blame

(D) is not worth the sacrifices that its citizens make on its behalf

 

  1. When exercising the muscles in one’s back, it is important, in order to maintain a healthy back, to exercise the muscles on opposite sides of the spine equally. After all, balanced muscle development is needed to maintain a healthy back, since the muscles on opposite sides of the spine must pull equally in opposing directions to keep the back in proper alignment and protect the spine. Which one of the following is an assumption required by the argument?

(A) Muscles on opposite sides of the spine that are equally well developed will be enough to keep the back in proper alignment.

(B) Exercising the muscles on opposite sides of the spine unequally tends to lead to unbalanced muscle development.

(C) Provided that one exercises the muscles on opposite sides of the spine equally, one will have a generally healthy back.

(D) If the muscles on opposite sides of the spine are exercised unequally, one’s back will be irreparably damaged.

 

  1. Editorialist: In all cultures, it is almost universally accepted that one has a moral duty to prevent members of one’s family from being harmed. Thus, few would deny that if a person is known by the person’s parents to be falsely accused of a crime, it would be morally right for the parents to hide the accused from the police. Hence, it is also likely to be widely accepted that it is sometimes morally right to obstruct the police in their work. The reasoning in the editorialist’s argument is most vulnerable to criticism on the grounds that this argument

(A) utilizes a single type of example for the purpose of justifying a broad generalization

(B) fails to consider the possibility that other moral principles would be widely recognized as overriding any obligation to protect a family member from harm

(C) presumes, without providing justification, that allowing the police to arrest an innocent person assists rather than obstructs justice

(D) takes for granted that there is no moral obligation to obey the law

 

  1. Editor: Many candidates say that if elected they will reduce governmental intrusion into voters’ lives. But voters actually elect politicians who instead promise that the government will provide assistance to solve their most pressing problems. Governmental assistance, however, costs money, and money can come only from taxes, which can be considered a form of governmental intrusion. Thus, governmental intrusion into the lives of voters will rarely be substantially reduced over time in a democracy. Which one of the following, if true, would most strengthen the editor’s argument?

(A) Politicians who win their elections usually keep their campaign promises.

(B) Politicians never promise what they really intend to do once in office.

(C) The most common problems people have are financial problems.

(D) Governmental intrusion into the lives of voters is no more burdensome in nondemocratic countries than it is in democracies.

 

  1. We should accept the proposal to demolish the old train station, because the local historical society, which vehemently opposes this, is dominated by people who have no commitment to long-term economic well-being. Preserving old buildings creates an impediment to new development, which is critical to economic health. The flawed reasoning exhibited by the argument above is most similar to that exhibited by which one of the following arguments?

(A) Our country should attempt to safeguard works of art that it deems to possess national cultural significance. These works might not be recognized as such by all taxpayers, or even all critics. Nevertheless, our country ought to expend whatever money is needed to procure all such works as they become available.

(B) Documents of importance to local heritage should be properly preserved and archived for the sake of future generations. For, if even one of these documents is damaged or lost, the integrity of the historical record as a whole will be damaged.

(C) You should have your hair cut no more than once a month. After all, beauticians suggest that their customers have their hair cut twice a month, and they do this as a way of generating more business for themselves.

(D) The committee should endorse the plan to postpone construction of the new expressway. Many residents of the neighborhoods that would be affected are fervently opposed to that construction, and the committee is obligated to avoid alienating those residents.

 

  1. Ethicist: On average, animals raised on grain must be fed sixteen pounds of grain to produce one pound of meat. A pound of meat is more nutritious for humans than a pound of grain, but sixteen pounds of grain could feed many more people than could a pound of meat. With grain yields leveling off, large areas of farmland going out of production each year, and the population rapidly expanding, we must accept the fact that consumption of meat will soon be morally unacceptable. Which one of the following, if true, would most weaken the ethicist’s argument?

(A) Even though it has been established that a vegetarian diet can be healthy, many people prefer to eat meat and are willing to pay for it.

(B) Often, cattle or sheep can be raised to maturity on grass from pastureland that is unsuitable for any other kind of farming.

(C) If a grain diet is supplemented with protein derived from non-animal sources, it can have nutritional value equivalent to that of a diet containing meat.

(D) Although prime farmland near metropolitan areas is being lost rapidly to suburban development, we could reverse this trend by choosing to live in areas that are already urban.

 

  1. If the price it pays for coffee beans continues to increase, the Coffee Shoppe will have to increase its prices. In that case, either the Coffee Shoppe will begin selling noncoffee products or its coffee sales will decrease. But selling noncoffee products will decrease the Coffee Shoppe’s overall profitability. Moreover, the Coffee Shoppe can avoid a decrease in overall profitability only if its coffee sales do not decrease. Which one of the following statements follows logically from the statements above?

(A) If the Coffee Shoppe’s overall profitability decreases, the price it pays for coffee beans will have continued to increase.

(B) If the Coffee Shoppe’s overall profitability decreases, either it will have begun selling noncoffee products or its coffee sales will have decreased.

(C) The Coffee Shoppe’s overall profitability will decrease if the price it pays for coffee beans continues to increase.

(D) The price it pays for coffee beans cannot decrease without the Coffee Shoppe’s overall profitability also decreasing.

 

  1. Political candidates’ speeches are loaded with promises and with expressions of good intention, but one must not forget that the politicians’ purpose in giving these speeches is to get themselves elected. Clearly, then, these speeches are selfishly motivated and the promises made in them are unreliable. Which one of the following most accurately describes a flaw in the argument above?

(A) The argument presumes, without providing justification, that if a person’s promise is not selfishly motivated then that promise is reliable.

(B) The argument presumes, without providing justification, that promises made for selfish reasons are never kept.

(C) The argument confuses the effect of an action with its cause.

(D) The argument overlooks the fact that a promise need not be unreliable just because the person who made it had an ulterior motive for doing so.

 

  1. Sociologist: Romantics who claim that people are not born evil but may be made evil by the imperfect institutions that they form cannot be right, for they misunderstand the causal relationship between people and their institutions. After all, institutions are merely collections of people.Which one of the following principles, if valid, would most help to justify the sociologist’s argument?

(A) People acting together in institutions can do more good or evil than can people acting individually.

(B) Institutions formed by people are inevitably imperfect.

(C) People should not be overly optimistic in their view of individual human beings.

(D) The whole does not determine the properties of the things that compose it.

 

  1. Some anthropologists argue that the human species could not have survived prehistoric times if the species had not evolved the ability to cope with diverse natural environments. However, there is considerable evidence that Australopithecus afarensis, a prehistoric species related to early humans, also thrived in a diverse array of environments, but became extinct. Hence, the anthropologists’ claim is false. The reasoning in the argument is most vulnerable to criticism on the grounds that the argument

(A) confuses a condition’s being required for a given result to occur in one case with the condition’s being sufficient for such a result to occur in a similar case

(B) takes for granted that if one species had a characteristic that happened to enable it to survive certain conditions, at least one related extinct species must have had the same characteristic

(C) generalizes, from the fact that one species with a certain characteristic survived certain conditions, that all related species with the same characteristic must have survived exactly the same conditions

(D) fails to consider the possibility that Australopithecus afarensis had one or more characteristics that lessened its chances of surviving prehistoric times

 

SECTION IV

Directions: Each group of questions in this section is based on a set of conditions. In answering some of the questions, it may be useful to draw a rough diagram. Choose the response that most accurately and completely answers each question and blacken the corresponding space on your answer sheet.

Questions 1–5

A researcher is evaluating exactly four medicines: W, X, Y, and Z. The only side effects the medicines can have are fatigue, headaches, palpitations, and sweating. The researcher knows the following to be true of the medicines’ side effects: Each medicine has at least one side effect. No medicine has both fatigue and palpitations as side effects. Medicine Z has no side effect in common with any of the other medicines. Medicines W and X have exactly one side effect in common. Fatigue is a side effect of medicine W. Palpitations are a side effect of medicine X. Sweating is not a side effect of medicine Y.

  1. If sweating is not a side effect of medicine X, then which one of the following statements must be true?

(A) Fatigue is a side effect of medicine Y.

(B) Headaches are a side effect of medicine W.

(C) Headaches are a side effect of medicine Y.

(D) Headaches are a side effect of medicine Z.

(E) Palpitations are a side effect of medicine Y.

 

If sweating is not a side effect of medicine Z, then which one of the following statements must be true?

(A) Fatigue is a side effect of medicine Y.

(B) Headaches are a side effect of medicine W.

(C) Headaches are a side effect of medicine Y.

(D) Headaches are a side effect of medicine Z.

(E) Palpitations are a side effect of medicine Y.

 

  1. Which one of the following statements could be true?

(A) Fatigue is a side effect of medicine X.

(B) Fatigue is a side effect of medicine Z.

(C) Headaches are a side effect of medicine X.

(D) Palpitations are a side effect of medicine W.

(E) Palpitations are a side effect of medicine Z.

 

  1. If medicines W, X, and Y have a side effect in common, then which one of the following statements

must be true?

(A) Fatigue is a side effect of medicine Y.

(B) Headaches are a side effect of medicine W.

(C) Headaches are a side effect of medicine Z.

(D) Palpitations are a side effect of medicine Y.

(E) Sweating is a side effect of medicine W.

 

  1. If medicine Y has more than one side effect, then which one of the following statements must be true?

(A) Headaches are a side effect of medicine Y.

(B) Palpitations are a side effect of medicine Y.

(C) Sweating is a side effect of medicine W.

(D) Palpitations are not a side effect of medicine Y.

(E) Sweating is not a side effect of medicine Z.

 

Questions 6–13

Tracy’s Flower Shop delivers exactly six types of flowers— lilacs, magnolias, orchids, roses, tulips, and violets. Exactly six deliveries are made over a period of two consecutive days—Friday and Saturday. Three deliveries are made each day, at three different times each day—10 A.M., 2 P.M., and 4 P.M. Each of the six deliveries involves only one of the six types of flowers. The deliveries are made in accord with the following:

The violets are delivered on Friday.

The lilacs are delivered at some time before the tulips.

The violets are delivered at some time before the magnolias.

The orchids and the roses are delivered on the same day as one another.

 

  1. Which one of the following could be an accurate list of the flowers in the order in which they are delivered, from first to last?

(A) magnolias, lilacs, violets, orchids, tulips, roses

(B) orchids, violets, roses, lilacs, magnolias, tulips

(C) roses, orchids, lilacs, tulips, violets, magnolias

(D) violets, orchids, magnolias, lilacs, tulips, roses

(E) violets, roses, orchids, tulips, magnolias, lilacs

 

  1. If the roses are delivered on Friday at 2 P.M., then each of the following could be true EXCEPT:

(A) The violets are delivered on Friday at 4 P.M.

(B) The tulips are delivered on Saturday at 2 P.M.

(C) The orchids are delivered on Friday at 4 P.M.

(D) The magnolias are delivered on Friday at 4 P.M.

(E) The lilacs are delivered on Saturday at 2 P.M.

 

  1. If the magnolias and the lilacs are delivered on Saturday, then which one of the following could be true?

(A) The orchids are delivered on Friday at 2 P.M.

(B) The orchids are delivered on Saturday at 10 A.M.

(C) The roses are delivered on Saturday at 4 P.M.

(D) The tulips are delivered on Friday at 4 P.M.

(E) The tulips are delivered on Saturday at 10 A.M.

 

  1. the flowers in the order in which they are delivered, from first to last?

(A) lilacs, roses, orchids, violets, tulips, magnolias

(B) magnolias, violets, lilacs, orchids, roses, tulips

(C) orchids, lilacs, violets, magnolias, roses, tulips

(D) orchids, roses, violets, magnolias, tulips, lilacs

(E) roses, violets, orchids, lilacs, tulips, magnolias

 

  1. Which one of the following could be true?

(A) The lilacs are delivered on Saturday at 4 P.M.

(B) The magnolias are delivered on Friday at 10 A.M.

(C) The magnolias are delivered on Friday at 2 P.M.

(D) The tulips are delivered on Friday at 10 A.M.

(E) The violets are delivered on Saturday at 4 P.M.

 

  1. If the tulips are delivered on Friday, then which one of the following CANNOT be true?

(A) The magnolias are delivered on Friday at 2 P.M.

(B) The magnolias are delivered on Saturday at 4 P.M.

(C) The orchids are delivered on Saturday at 10 A.M.

(D) The roses are delivered on Saturday at 4 P.M.

(E) The violets are delivered on Friday at 4 P.M.

 

  1. If the magnolias and the orchids are delivered on the same day, then which one of the following could be true?

(A) The roses are delivered on Friday.

(B) The lilacs are delivered on Saturday.

(C) The tulips are delivered on Saturday.

(D) The orchids are delivered before the violets.

(E) The violets are delivered before the lilacs.

 

  1. If the tulips are delivered after the roses, then which one of the following must be true?

(A) The magnolias are delivered on Friday.

(B) The tulips are delivered on Saturday.

(C) The magnolias and the tulips are delivered on different days.

(D) The orchids and the tulips are delivered on different days.

(E) The tulips are delivered after the orchids.

 

Questions 14–18

During a seven-year period, an amusement park builds exactly seven roller coasters—the Firecracker, the Gobbler, the Hurricane, the Jackrabbit, the Lasso, the Niagara, and the Pretzel. No two roller coasters are built in the same year. Each roller coaster is either steel or wooden. The following conditions must apply:

The Pretzel is built in the second year.

The roller coaster built in the first year is steel, and the one built in the seventh year is wooden.

The Lasso is built after the Firecracker.

The Jackrabbit and the Gobbler are built before the Hurricane.

Exactly two of the roller coasters built after the Hurricane are steel.

Wooden roller coasters are not built in any two consecutive years.

 

  1. Which one of the following could be the order, from first to last, in which the roller coasters are built?

(A) Gobbler, Jackrabbit, Pretzel, Hurricane, Firecracker, Lasso, Niagara

(B) Jackrabbit, Pretzel, Gobbler, Hurricane, Lasso, Firecracker, Niagara

(C) Jackrabbit, Pretzel, Gobbler, Hurricane, Niagara, Firecracker, Lasso

(D) Niagara, Pretzel, Gobbler, Jackrabbit, Hurricane, Firecracker, Lasso

(E) Niagara, Pretzel, Jackrabbit, Hurricane, Gobbler, Firecracker, Lasso

 

  1. Which one of the following roller coasters must be steel?

(A) Firecracker

(B) Gobbler

(C) Hurricane

(D) Jackrabbit

(E) Lasso

 

  1. If the Firecracker is built in a year immediately after a year in which a wooden roller coaster is built, then which one of the following must be true?

(A) The Gobbler is wooden.

(B) The Hurricane is wooden.

(C) The Firecracker is built in the sixth year.

(D) The Jackrabbit is built in the third year.

(E) The Lasso is built in the sixth year.

 

  1. Each of the following roller coasters must be built before the Lasso EXCEPT:

(A) Firecracker

(B) Gobbler

(C) Hurricane

(D) Jackrabbit

(E) Niagara

 

  1. If the Jackrabbit, the Hurricane, and the Firecracker are built in three consecutive years, in that order, then each of the following must be true EXCEPT:

(A) The Firecracker is built before the Niagara.

(B) The Gobbler is built before the Jackrabbit.

(C) The Hurricane is built before the Niagara.

(D) The Niagara is built before the Lasso.

(E) The Pretzel is built before the Jackrabbit.

 

  1. On Tuesday evenings, the Community Center offers one session of each of the following six introductory classes: gymnastics, jazz dance, kung fu, meditation, tennis, and yoga. No other introductory classes are offered on Tuesdays. Each class is scheduled for exactly one hour, beginning at 5 P.M., 6 P.M., 7 P.M., or 8 P.M. Tuesday’s schedule conforms to the following conditions:

Yoga begins later than jazz dance but no later than kung fu.

Meditation begins at the same time as exactly one other introductory class.

No other introductory class begins at the same time as gymnastics.

At most one of the other introductory classes begins later than gymnastics.

 

  1. Which one of the following could be an accurate schedule of the Tuesday introductory classes?

(A) 5 P.M.: jazz dance, meditation

6 P.M.: yoga

7 P.M.: gymnastics

8 P.M.: kung fu, tennis

(B) 5 P.M.: jazz dance

6 P.M.: meditation, tennis

7 P.M.: yoga

8 P.M.: gymnastics, kung fu

(C) 5 P.M. jazz dance, meditation

6 P.M.: yoga

7 P.M.: kung fu, tennis

8 P.M.: gymnastics

(D) 5 P.M.: jazz dance, tennis

6 P.M.: meditation

7 P.M.: kung fu, yoga

8 P.M.: gymnastics

(E) 5 P.M.: tennis, yoga

6 P.M.: jazz dance, meditation

7 P.M.: gymnastics

8 P.M.: kung fu

 

  1. If meditation is scheduled to begin later than tennis, then which one of the following could be true of the schedule?

(A) Jazz dance begins later than meditation.

(B) Kung fu begins later than gymnastics.

(C) Meditation begins later than kung fu.

(D) Tennis begins later than kung fu.

(E) Tennis begins later than yoga.

 

  1. Which one of the following introductory classes could be the only class scheduled to begin at 5 P.M.?

(A) yoga

(B) tennis

(C) meditation

(D) kung fu

(E) gymnastics

 

  1. Which one of the following introductory classes CANNOT be scheduled to start at 6 P.M.?

(A) gymnastics

(B) jazz dance

(C) kung fu

(D) meditation

(E) tennis

 

 

 

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